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Επιστροφή στο Forum : Η ιστορία του μπικίνι



steangle
25.03.2008, 19:53
Η ιστορία του μπικίνι

http://istoria.exnet.gr/images/stories/aferomata%20_thriskia/bikini_small.jpgΤο μπικίνι, με την έννοια του ενδύματος που χωρίζεται σε δύο μέρη, είναι γνωστό από την αρχαιότητα. Ανάλογα ενδύματα συναντάμε σε απεικονίσεις αθλητριών σε αρχαιοελληνικές υδρίες και τοιχογραφίες.

Το πρώτο σύγχρονο μπικίνι, σχεδιασμένο από τον γάλλο μηχανικό Λουί Ρεάρ, παρουσιάστηκε στις 5 Ιουλίου (http://istoria.exnet.gr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=473&Itemid=35) του 1946, σε υπαίθρια επίδειξη μόδας στο Παρίσι. Πήρε το όνομά του από την Ατόλη Μπικίνι στα νησιά Μάρσαλ, όπου έγιναν οι πρώτες δοκιμές ατομικής βόμβας, με τις εκρήξεις των οποίων παρομοιάστηκε η έκρηξη ενθουσιασμού που προκλήθηκε στον ανδρικό πληθυσμό από τη δημιουργία του νέου μαγιό.

Στην ουσία, ο Ρεάρ τελειοποίησε τη δημιουργία ενός άλλου σχεδιαστή, του Ζακ Εμ, ο οποίος είχε παρουσιάσει το δικό του μπικίνι δύο μήνες νωρίτερα. Το είχε ονομάσει «Άτομο», υποδηλώνοντας το μικροσκοπικό του μέγεθος. Ο Ρεάρ το έκανε ακόμη μικρότερο, αλλά το πρόβλημά του ήταν ότι δεν έβρισκε κανένα μοντέλο που να τολμά να το φορέσει στην επίδειξη. Τη λύση έδωσε τελικά η Μισελίν Μπερναρντινί, μία αισθησιακή χορεύτρια που εργαζόταν στο Καζίνο του Παρισιού.

Χρειάστηκαν δεκαπέντε ολόκληρα χρόνια μέχρι το μπικίνι να γίνει αποδεκτό στις ΗΠΑ. Μάλιστα, το 1951 η χρήση του απαγορεύτηκε στον διεθνή διαγωνισμό ομορφιάς για την ανάδειξη της Μις Υφηλίου. Ωστόσο, το μπικίνι της Μπριζίτ Μπαρντό στην ταινία του 1957 «Και ο Θεός έπλασε τη γυναίκα» δημιούργησε μια νέα τάση στην αγορά των μαγιό, που «απογειώθηκε» το 1960, μετά την ποπ επιτυχία του Μπράιαν Χίλαντ «Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini».

Σταδιακά το μέγεθός του συρρικνώθηκε ακόμη περισσότερο, κυρίως κατά τη δεκαετία του 1980, οπότε έκαναν την εμφάνισή τους τα πρώτα string, αποτελούμενα από λεπτές λωρίδες υφάσματος ή δέρματος. Για την περίπτωση που χρησιμοποιείται μόνο το κάτω μέρος, αφήνοντας το στήθος εκτεθειμένο, συχνά χρησιμοποιείται ο όρος μονοκίνι, εμπνευστής του οποίου είναι ο αυστριακός σχεδιαστής μόδας Ρούντι Γκερνράιχ.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 12:54
The Bikini

1940s–1950s
From the early 1930s, stylish resorts were frequented by women wearing midriff-baring two-piece bathing suits consisting of a bra and modest, shorts-like trunks. Concurrently, these styles were being seen on the silver screen courtesy of Mack Sennett's Bathing Beauties and, in a sarong version, Dorothy Lamour in the 1937 film Hurricane. Though these ensembles were alluring and sexy, they were not necessarily scandalous. The difference between the bikini and its two-piece predecessor is brevity. Simply defined, the bikini is an abbreviated two-piece swimsuit with a bra top and panties cut below the navel. Broadly defined, the bikini represents a social leap involving body consciousness, moral concerns, and sexual attitudes. Named after an A-bomb testing site on a remote Pacific atoll, the bikini has had a history and reputation deserving of its name.

Fashion designer Jacques Heim and mechanical engineer Louis Reard both claim to be the first to launch the bikini on the French Riviera in Cannes in the summer of 1946. The design, two triangles on top, positioned to cover the bosom and two triangles, one front, one back, on the bottom, was basic. Though Reard patented his version and Heim is now remembered as a couturier and an early supporter of sportswear, there is much debate over who "invented" the bikini. A likely scenario is that both gentlemen had seen the local jeunes filles of Cannes sunning themselves in the most abbreviated beach costumes in order to achieve the bronze of the newly fashionable suntan. The bathers had pushed the fashion to the acceptable social limit, and both businessmen took advantage of this show of youthful daring. Officially, the first time the bikini appeared in a fashion event was at a poolside show at the Piscine Molitor in Paris on July 5, 1946.

Though a success in postwar France, Americans deemed the bikini too risqué until Hollywood stars like Rita Hayworth and Ava Gardner were photographed wearing them. A two-piece suit with a halter or bandeau top and gracefully draped or skirted bottom half was common attire for screen siren Esther Williams. Soon movie fans could replicate her look complete with plunging neckline, bare midriff, and gold lamé jersey courtesy of costume designer Margit Fellegi for Cole of California. Catalina, another leading bathing suit manufacturer, used many Hollywood stars, such as Ginger Rogers and Marilyn Monroe, in their advertisements.

From their first public appearance in the mid-nineteenth century, bathing suits, both one- and two-piece, were constructed of wool, cotton, and less frequently, terrycloth. By the late 1930s, bathing suit manufacturers began taking advantage of new developments in fabric technology when Lastex and nylon, a quick-drying elasticized fabric, were developed. These new synthetic fibers allowed for an incredibly revealing silhouette. Postwar swimsuits had a conical bosom created from wire and padding. Boned and cupped, the two-piece bathing suit greatly resembled the foundation garments of the day. For a more tailored look, designers like Tom Brigance at Lord & Taylor department store cut his swimwear from colorful cottons in stripes, large prints, and polka dots.

1960s–Today
Though California instinctively comes to mind when thinking about bikinis in the 1960s–'70s, France, specifically the French Riviera, led the way again in beach fashion with the string bikini in the early '60s. The string bikini was even briefer than its predecessor, with string ties for the minimal halter bra and triangular panties also tied, and worn low on the hip. Bridget Bardot, frolicking in Saint-Tropez, popularized the look, sometimes sans top. For a more chic look, Italian sportswear designer Emilio Pucci produced bikinis in soft silk jersey in his ebullient trademark prints and colors. A big development came from Rudi Gernreich, when his monokini was introduced in 1964. With its thin straps attached directly to the bottom brief, the wearer's entire upper torso was revealed, to the dismay of more conservative bathers. Alternative swimwear fabrics such as velvet, leather, and crocheted squares surfaced in the early '70s. Norma Kamali's innovative designs utilized gold Lurex for a shiny sexy swimsuit. The new thigh-high cut of her bottom led the way to the tanga and the thong, an essentially backless bikini bottom first made popular on the beaches of Rio de Janeiro.[/SIZE][/FONT]

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/biki/hd_biki.htm

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 13:00
Beachwear (bikini), ca. 1940
American
Wool
Gift of Jacqueline Loewe Fowler Costume Collection, 2001 (2001.790.1a,b)


http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_2001.790.1a,b.jpg

This early two-piece bathing suit is knitted from blue and white wool knit with a whimsical fish design. It is made modest through the top's sufficient coverage and the high-waisted brief that conceals the torso to below the hipline. Elastic at the brief's waistband and the button closure at center back assure the wearer complete confidence in even the roughest surf.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 13:05
Ensemble (beachwear), 1944–45
Carolyn Schnurer (American, born 1908)
Cotton
Gift of Carolyn Schnurer, 1946 (C.I.46.106.98a-c)


http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_C.I.46.106.98a-c.jpg

This three-piece beachwear ensemble features a bottom in the wraparound "diaper" style first made popular by American sportswear designer Claire McCardell. A halter-style bra and a wraparound scooter skirt in a bold red and blue cotton floral print complete the ensemble. Schnurer, who was known for traveling the world in search of design inspiration, was very successful at adapting indigenous design ideas into garments that appealed to the American woman.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 13:11
Beachwear (bikini), late 1940s–early 1950s
American
Synthetics
Gift of Miriam Whitney Coletti, 1985 (1985.364.12a,b)


http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_1985.364.12a,b.jpg

The sexiness of this two-piece bathing suit with Hollywood-starlet styling is offset by the innocence of the white ruffles, which are usually seen on little girl's dresses. The bathing beauty—posing seaside and poolside—has been a perennial fantasy, made spectacular by Hollywood publicity images, aquatic shows, Esther Williams movies, and, more recently, swimwear issues of sports magazines.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 13:17
Beachwear (bathing suit), 1950–59
American
Wool
Gift of Richard Martin, 1996 (1996.316.2ab)


http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_1996.316.2a,b.jpg

Monochromatic stripes add a nautical touch to this ensemble. The strapless top has round-wired cups to shape the bust into the desired 1950s silhouette, while the modest bottom of black wool jersey features an overskirt with striped inserts.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 13:22
Beachwear (bathing suit), 1964
Rudi Gernreich (American, born Austria, 1922–1985)
Wool, elastic
Gift of Betty Furness, 1986 (1986.517.13)


http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_1986.517.13.jpg

Though swimwear always extends the possibility of a view to the body, the monokini caused quite a stir when it debuted in 1964. Gernreich's paradox is that the bottom of the topless suit is very conservative, with ample coverage and made in the same wool material that had been used for Victorian bathing apparel. As a gesture akin to Conceptual Art, this suit merges an avant-garde sensibility with a nod to tradition.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 13:29
Beachwear (bikini), 1970–71
Rudi Gernreich (American, born Austria, 1922–1985)
Wool
Purchase, Irene Lewisohn Bequest, 1996 (1996.118.4ab)


http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_1996.118.4a,b.jpg

This bikini of brown wool knit with black wool banded edges is an amalgamation of angles. The top is composed of four triangles with all edges traced by wide, flat strips of black knit. The bottom, also traced in black, has additional black bands attached at the low-slung waistline that criss-cross once around the midriff. With this collection, Gernreich pays homage to Georges Rouault (1871–1958), a French Expressionist painter known for bordering his images with thick black lines.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 13:36
Beachwear (bikini), 1970s
French
Synthetics
Gift of Jane Holzer, 1993 (1993.517.44a,b)


http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_1993.517.44a,b.jpg

Worn on the beaches of the French Riviera, this string bikini of rust-colored nylon is decorated with beads of black, tortoiseshell color, and ivory. The top ties at the back of the neck and at the center back with a slender string. The suggestive bottom has beads at both hips.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 13:44
Beachwear (Bikini), 1970s
American or European
Cotton
Gift of Jane Holzer, 1993 (1993.517.40ab)


http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_1993.517.40ab.jpg

Quite literally a "string bikini," this rust-colored crocheted creation is made almost entirely from cotton yarn. The swimsuit is held in place by elastic strings at the bustline and waist along with halter ties, while strategically placed densely crocheted areas keep the wearer's modesty in tact.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 14:17
http://www.cnn.com/STYLE/9607/06/bikini.aniversary/jacques.jpg

JACQUES HEIM

1899-1967

Jacques Heim was born in Paris, France in 1899. In 1923, he took over the furrier business started by his parents Isidore and Jeanne Heim, in the rue Lafine, Paris, in 1898. Heim Furs supplied the aristocracy of Europe with the most luxurious of sable and ermine evening wraps.

Jacques expanded into designing women's clothing when he joined the family firm, and designed for 7 years. During this time he collaborated with SONIA DELAUNAY, designing dresses and coats which were exhibited at the Art Deco exhibition in Paris in 1925. His collections at this time featured geometric shaping in a CUBISM matter, using contrasting textiles and colours.

He then established his own couture house in 1930. In 1936, he introduced his Heim Jeunes Filles (young girls) collection aimed at a younger clientele.

During the German occupation of Paris from 1940 to 1944, Jacques Heim being Jewish, was subject to continual harassment. With great difficulty he kept his house going during this period. He had to instal a manager so that his house would not be considered a "jewish house" but somehow he survived.

Between 1946 and 1966, he opened a chain of boutiques selling sportswear, swimwear and casual clothing. In the 50's he began ready-to-wear activities, with his label Heim Actualite.

Heim is one of the designers who has been credited with the introduction and promotion of the two-piece swimsuit in the late 40's. In 1956 he shot to fame when Brigitte Bardot was shown wearing one made of gingham, adorned with frills. He produced several beachwear collections, one featuring a draped bathing suit. He also popularized cotton for beachwear when he used the fabric for a couture collection.


http://www.cnn.com/STYLE/9607/06/bikini.aniversary/bomb.lg.jpg
The bikini was named after the South Pacific atoll where the atomic bomb was being tested.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 14:34
http://www.balnea.net/images/gallerie/2681_1.jpg

Louis Reard

1896-1984

Louis Reard was born in Switzerland in 1896. He was a mechanical engineer until the early 1940's when he decided to become a clothes designer, and for a start to make swimsuits.

On 18th July 1946, he dressed Micheline, a nude dancer from the Casino de Paris, in a two piece swimsuit. This was just 3 weeks after the USA had conducted Atomic Bomb tests in the Pacific on a small atoll named Bikini, in the Marshall Islands. So Louis Reard decided to call his new swimsuit, "the Bikini".

He had a novel way of advertising his swimsuit. He hired a skywriting plane to write in the sky "Atome - the world's smallest bathing suit" and "Bikini - smaller than the smallest bathing suit in the world."

Louis Reard afterwards opened a bikini shop in Paris and sold swimsuits for 40 years till he died in 1984 at the age of 88.


http://www.cnn.com/STYLE/9607/06/bikini.aniversary/first.model.lg.jpg
The bikini was modelled in public by a nude dancer.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 15:07
'Earliest' Bikini Girls


When the bikini was unveiled in 1946, it was by no means the first time that women had worn so revealing a garment in public. In the fourth century, for example, Roman gymnasts wore bandeau tops, bikini bottoms, and even anklets that would look perfectly at home on the beaches of Southern California today.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/PiazzaArmerina-Mosaik-Bikini.jpg/397px-PiazzaArmerina-Mosaik-Bikini.jpg


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0a/Casale_Bikini.jpg/800px-Casale_Bikini.jpg



Famous "bikini girls" mosaic (found by archeological excavation of the ancient Roman villa near Piazza Armerina in Sicily), showing women exercising, running, or receiving the palm of victory and crown (for winning an athletic competition).

Bikini Mosaic
Villa Romana del Casale
(The Villa was constructed on the remains of an older villa in the first quarter of the fourth century A.D.)
M. Disdero
Juin 2006

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 15:30
http://i272.photobucket.com/albums/jj199/yaryalitsa/bikinislide2.jpg
Photograph of a woman perching on the edge of a bathing machine at an Ostend, Belgium, beach by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images.

At the turn of the 20th century, though, such displays would have been unthinkable. Female swimmers went to extraordinary lengths to conceal themselves at the beach. They wore voluminous bathing costumes and even made use of a peculiar Victorian contraption called the bathing machine, essentially a small wooden or canvas hut on wheels. The bather entered the machine fully dressed and donned her swimming clothes inside. Then, horses (or occasionally humans) pulled the cart into the surf. The bather would disembark on the seaside, where she could take a dip without being observed from the shore.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 15:56
And God Created Woman...
Brigitte Bardot

http://www.minyanville.com/assets/Image/bridgette_bardot_6.jpg


Some Tidbits:
* Although the bikini is more than 1,700 years old based on mosaics from the Villa Romana del Casale in Sicily believed to have been created in 300 AD, the modern version that we now know and love debuted in Paris on July 5, 1946.

* Louis Reard, a French engineer, and French designer Jacques Heim, were in competition in the early 1940s to produce the world's smallest swimsuit, according to the BBC; a truly noble design battle if ever there was one.

* Reard reportedly had noticed women in St. Tropez rolling up their bathing suits in an attempt to get a better tan.

* The name "bikini" came to Reard following US post-World War II atomic tests on the South Pacific Bikini atoll.

* Initially banned in Catholic countries, the bikini craze as a fashion statement is widely credited to Bridgette Bardot in the 1957 film "And God Created Woman."



http://www.edwardquinn.com/assets/images/Bardot_B_199A_001.JPG

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 16:24
Ava Gardner

http://www.doctormacro.info/Images/Gardner,%20Ava/Annex/Annex%20-%20Gardner,%20Ava_19.jpg



Though a success in postwar France, Americans deemed the bikini too risqué until Hollywood stars like Rita Hayworth and Ava Gardner were photographed wearing them.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 16:26
Ava Gardner

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/womanshour/gallery/media/Getty-3169878.jpg http://www2.hawaii.edu/~lanning/jpgs/manuela/ava03.jpg



Though a success in postwar France, Americans deemed the bikini too risqué until Hollywood stars like Rita Hayworth and Ava Gardner were photographed wearing them.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 16:41
Rita Hayworth

http://members.tripod.com/~claudia79/photos/swimsilk.jpg



Though a success in postwar France, Americans deemed the bikini too risqué until Hollywood stars like Rita Hayworth and Ava Gardner were photographed wearing them.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 16:51
Rita Hayworth

http://www.smith.edu/educ/student%20work/identity/rita.jpg



Though a success in postwar France, Americans deemed the bikini too risqué until Hollywood stars like Rita Hayworth and Ava Gardner were photographed wearing them.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 17:28
Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini" is a novelty song telling the story of a shy high-school student in a very revealing polka dot bikini bathing suit (which she apparently did not try on beforehand) who stays immersed in the ocean water to hide from view, while other high-schoolers gossip about her. It was written by Paul Vance and Lee Pockriss and first released on August 8, 1960 by Brian Hyland. Hyland's version hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1960 and also made the top 10 in other countries.


http://cache.wists.com/thumbnails/8/28/828921f483eed91d8794d530cdfa218c-orig



Lyrics


ITSY BITSY TEENIE WEENIE YELLOW POLKA DOT BIKINI

Bup-bup-bup-bup, ba-dup-bup-bup-bup-bup

She was afraid to come out of the locker
She was as nervous as she could be
She was afraid to come out of the locker
She was afraid that somebody would see

Two, three, four - tell the people what she wore

It was an itsy bitsy teenie weenie yellow polka dot bikini
That she wore for the first time today
An itsy bitsy teenie weenie yellow polka dot bikini
So in the locker she wanted to stay

Two, three, four - stick around, we'll tell you more

Bup-bup-bup-bup, ba-dup-bup-bup-bup-bup

She was afraid to come out in the open (ba-da-dup)
And so a blanket around her, she wore (ba-da-dup)
She was afraid to come out in the open (ba-da-dup)
And so she sat bundled up on the shore

Two, three, four - tell the people what she wore

It was an itsy bitsy teenie weenie yellow polka dot bikini
That she wore for the first time today
An itsy bitsy teenie weenie yellow polka dot bikini
So in the blanket she wanted to stay

Two, three, four - stick around, we'll tell you more

Bup-bup-bup-bup, ba-dup-bup-bup-bup-bup

Now she's afraid to come out of the water (ba-da-dup)
And I wonder what she's gonna do (ba-da-dup)
Yes, she's afraid to come out of the water (ba-da-dup)
And now the poor little girl's turning blue

Two, three, four - tell the people what she wore

It was an itsy bitsy teenie weenie yellow polka dot bikini
That she wore for the first time today
An itsy bitsy teenie weenie yellow polka dot bikini
So in the water she wanted to stay

From the locker to the blanket
From the blanket to the shore
From the shore to the water
Guess there isn't anymore

Click here to hear the song! (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RH6Kde0tWug)
Πατήστε Εδώ Να Ακούσετε το Τραγούδι! (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RH6Kde0tWug)

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 17:42
Esther Williams

http://davekehr.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/esther-2.jpg



A two-piece suit with a halter or bandeau top and gracefully draped or skirted bottom half was common attire for screen siren Esther Williams. Soon movie fans could replicate her look complete with plunging neckline, bare midriff, and gold lamé jersey courtesy of costume designer Margit Fellegi for Cole of California. Catalina, another leading bathing suit manufacturer, used many Hollywood stars, such as Ginger Rogers and Marilyn Monroe, in their advertisements.

Yaryalitsa
27.03.2008, 17:47
Esther Williams

http://i.imdb.com/Photos/Mptv/1070/0581_0803.jpg



A two-piece suit with a halter or bandeau top and gracefully draped or skirted bottom half was common attire for screen siren Esther Williams. Soon movie fans could replicate her look complete with plunging neckline, bare midriff, and gold lamé jersey courtesy of costume designer Margit Fellegi for Cole of California. Catalina, another leading bathing suit manufacturer, used many Hollywood stars, such as Ginger Rogers and Marilyn Monroe, in their advertisements.

Yaryalitsa
02.04.2008, 16:52
Esther Williams

http://www.cinemaretro.com/uploads/esther18.jpg

Yaryalitsa
02.04.2008, 16:58
Hi-tech bikini has built-in exposure warning

July 26, 2006 - 11:14AM


http://www.smh.com.au/ffximage/2006/07/26/bikini26_narrowweb__300x442,0.jpg

Solestrom's new bikini that goes on sale in month with a UV meter built into its belt and an alarm that beeps to tell wearers when to head to the shade.

As the bikini turns 60, it's entering the electronic age with a new model featuring a built-in alarm to warn wearers to get out of the sun - and ease concerns that the scanty swimsuits damage the health.

The American Cancer Society advises that the best way to lower the risk of skin cancer, the most common form of the disease in humans, is to avoid too much exposure to the sun and other sources of ultraviolet light.

So Canadian company Solestrom has come up with a new bikini that goes on sale next month with a UV meter built into its belt and an alarm that beeps to tell wearers when to head to the shade.

"There's so much concern about sun exposure and skin cancer that we saw the demand and designed something to be safe for the wearer," Solestrom spokeswoman Emily Garassa said.

Garassa said the meter on the $US190 bikini displays a level of UV intensity on a scale from 0 to 20. A person's sensitivity to UV depends mainly on skin type, but generally three to five would be considered moderate strength, 8-10 very high and anything above 11 extreme.

Garassa said the company was already seeing high demand from Australia and South Africa, which have the world's highest skin cancer rates. The United States has about 1 million new skin cancer cases each year.

Despite increasing awareness of the sun's dangers, sales remain strong for the bikini, which celebrated its 60th anniversary this month.

A new survey by U.S.-based market research company NPD Group found the number of the suits sold in the United States rose 18.8 percent to 33.6 million in the year ended in April 2006, with sales worth a total of $US811 million.

For the complete article select HERE :) (http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/exposure-warning/2006/07/26/1153816223363.html&h=442&w=300&sz=18&hl=en&start=7)