Θέμα: Η Ιστορία του Καναδά
15-11-2013, 08:52 #1
- Nov 2013
Η Ιστορία του Καναδά
για τους Ελληνες ειναι λιγο αστειο η Ιστορια μιας χωρας να αρχιζει απο τον 17ο αιωνα,
αλλα ειδαμε και που μας οδηγησε το να εχεις Ιστορια απο το 1200 π.Χ
17th Century Canadian History - Your Canada
Sieur de Monts obtains charter to all the land lying between 40th-46th degree north latitude
Port Royal, the first permanent French settlement in North America, founded
Quebec City founded by Samuel de Champlain
Etienne Brule lives among Huron and is first European to see Great Lakes
Port Royal sacked by Samuel Argall and his pirates from Virginia
James I of England grants Acadia to Sir William Alexander who renames it New Scotland (Nova Scotia)
Company of One Hundred Associates is founded to establish a French Empire in North America
Quebec City captured by an English fleet led by David Kirke, (he also captured Port Royal the year before)
Charles de la Tour builds Fort La Tour (a.k.a. Fort Saint Marie) at the mouth of the Saint John River
British lose control of Acadia due to the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Isaac de Razilly sails from France with 300 people hoping to establish a permanent French settlement in Acadia
French crown grants Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy to d’Aulnay; La Tour gets Nova Scotia peninsula
Smallpox epidemic decimates Huron people; population reduced by 50%
Montréal is founded
Attacks by the Iroquois disperse the Huron; disrupts fur trade over the next fifteen years
Massachusetts General Court licenses traders going from Massachusetts to Acadia
English Navigation Act prohibits foreigners from trading with English colonies
Louis XIV assumes personal control of New France
France, England and the Netherlands sign the Breda Treaty in July and with this England gives Acadia to France
First census of New France records 668 families, totalling 3,215 non-native inhabitants
Hudson’s Bay Company is formed and granted trade rights over all territory draining into Hudson’s Bay (the largest land grant in world history)
West Country merchants attempt to enforce restrictions on settlement in Newfoundland
French explorer La Salle reaches the mouth of the Mississippi
King James II & Louis XIV sign neutrality pact handing forts of St. John’s & Port Royal back to the French
Sir William Phips captures almost all of the French possessions in Acadia
Treaty of Ryswick restores the status quo between France & England; Acadia is returned to the French
15-11-2013, 08:54 #2
- Nov 2013
18th Century Canadian History
18th Century Canadian History - Your Canada
Population of Acadia is 1,400
War of the Spanish Succession begins in Europe; spreads to North America (Queen Anne’s War) in 1702
French forces destroy the English settlement at Bonavista, Newfoundland
Port Royal is attacked twice by the English from Massachusetts
The English take Port Royal and name it Annapolis Royal
Treaty of Utrecht cedes French Acadia, Newfoundland, Hudson Bay and the “country of the Iroquois” to England
Construction of Louisbourg Fortress by the French begins on Ile Royale (Cape Breton Island)
Lord Baltimore sponsors expedition to bring settlers to Newfoundland
800 Acadians take oath of allegiance to the French
France declares war on England (March 15)
Louisbourg surrenders to English after six-week seige (June 17)
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle returns Ile Royale (Cape Breton) and Ile Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island) to French
Halifax is founded by British to counter French presence at Louisbourg
French and Indian War begins in North America; becomes Seven Years’ War when fighting spreads to Europe (1756)
Expulsion of the Acadians begins. Many eventually relocated to New Orleans. This was a defining event for that city, with their historic French-Quarter.
Louisbourg captured again by the British (July 27)
British troops under Wolfe defeat French forces under Montcalm at Quebec; both generals are killed; Quebec falls
Proclamation issued by Governor of Nova Scotia invites New Englanders to settle there
Louisbourg Fortress demolished by the British
Treaty of Paris gives Canada (New France and Acadia) to England
Prince Edward Island becomes a separate colony
Quebec Act guarantees religious freedom for Roman Catholic colonists
American Revolution begins
Quebec withstands American siege
Captain James Cook anchors in Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island
Treaty of Versailles gives Americans fishing rights off Newfoundland, but not to dry or cure fish on land
United Empire Loyalists arrive in Canada; New Brunswick becomes a separate colony to accommodate them
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland allowed to import goods from the United States
Alexander Mackenzie journeys to the Beaufort Sea, following what would later be named the Mackenzie River
Constitutional Act divides Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada
Captain George Vancouver begins his explorations of the Pacific Coast
Jay Treaty allows U.S. vessels into British ports of the West Indies; British agree to evacuate Ohio Valley forts
American competition for West Indies trade kills Liverpool, Nova Scotia’s merchant fleet
15-11-2013, 08:56 #3
- Nov 2013
19th Century Canadian History
19th Century Canadian History - Your Canada
Spain cedes Louisiana back to France
1,400 American ships are fishing off Labrador and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Napoleon’s continental blockade cuts British access to Scandinavian timber
War of 1812 declared, allowing Maritime colonies to profit from illegal trade
Red River settlement founded by Hudson’s Bay Company
Amerindian chief Tecumseh is killed at the Battle of Moraviantown
Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812; no territorial gains on either side
Famine in Newfoundland due to poor postwar economy
Nova Scotia population estimated at 78,345
49th parallel becomes British North America/U.S. border from Lake of the Woods to Rocky Mountains
Hudson’s Bay Company merges with arch rivals, the Montréal-based North West Company
Opening of Erie Canal gives New York competitive edge over Montréal
Opening of Lachine Canal restores level playing field for Montréal
Royal William, formerly operating between Québec & Halifax, becomes first steamship to cross Atlantic
Two separate rebellions, one in Upper and one in Lower Canada, fail to dislodge entrenched elites
Lord Durham’s Report recommends union of Upper and Lower Canada, and responsible government
Act of Union unites Upper and Lower Canada
New Brunswick/Maine boundary settled by Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Fort Victoria built by British to strengthen their claim to Vancouver Island
Halifax native Samuel Cunard chooses Boston as the western terminus for his steamships
British Prime Minister Robert Peel announces Free Trade, ending old Colonial mercantile trade system
Responsible government established in Nova Scotia and Canada
The boundary at the 49th parallel is extended to the Pacific Ocean (bisecting Point Roberts!)
Reciprocity (free trade) begins between British North America and the United States
Queen Victoria names Ottawa as Canada’s capital
American Civil War begins
Québec Conference sets out the terms of union for British North American colonies
Fenians launch first raids into British territory (June 2)
Confederation of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Québec and Ontario forms the Dominion of Canada
Sir John A. Macdonald becomes Canada’s first prime minister
Hudson’s Bay Company surrenders territorial rights to Rupert’s Land to the Crown
Newfoundlanders reject Confederation in general election
Louis Riel leads Metis resistance to Canadian authority; province of Manitoba created
Treaty of Washington grants fishing rights on Grand Banks to United States
British Columbia joins Confederation
Global economic depression begins
Intercolonial Railway linking central Canada and the Maritime provinces is completed
National Policy imposes tariff on manufactured goods being imported into Canada
Transcontinental railway is completed in Eagle Pass, B.C.; 9 days later, Louis Riel is hanged in Regina
Manitoba stops public funding of Catholic schools; causes uproar in Québec
Nearly one-quarter of Nova Scotian women are working for wages outside the home
Klondike gold rush begins
Canada issues Christmas postage stamp showing British Empire in “flaming red”
Boer War begins; the first Canadian troops to serve overseas are sent to South Africa
15-11-2013, 08:58 #4
- Nov 2013
20th Century Canadian History
20th Century Canadian History - Your Canada
Federal immigration policy entices Eastern Europeans to Canadian West
Marconi receives the first transatlantic radio message at St. John’s, Newfoundland
Canada loses Alaska Boundary dispute when British representative sides with U.S.
A prospector in northern Ontario stumbles across the world’s richest silver vein
Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta are formed
Industrial Disputes Investigation Act (IDIA) requires compulsory conciliation of labour disputes
Federal government decides to establish the Royal Canadian Navy
Liberal government of Wilfred Laurier loses Reciprocity election; Robert Borden becomes Prime Minister
S.S. Titanic sinks off Newfoundland; recovered bodies are buried in Halifax cemetery
Canadian economy goes into a slump
Canada automatically enters First World War when Britain declares war on Germany (August 4)
French munitions ship Mont Blanc catches fire and explodes in Halifax harbor on December 6th; 2,000 killed
Canadians capture Vimy Ridge after British and French attempts fail
Income tax is introduced by the federal government as a “temporary wartime measure”
Under the War Measures Act, manufacture and sale of intoxicating beverages is prohibited in Canada
With passage of the Volstead Act in the United States, the rum-running era begins
Foster Hewitt makes the world’s first radio broadcast of a hockey game
Canada deals directly with U.S. without British participation in signing Halibut Treaty
Delegation of Maritime businessmen and politicians travels to Ottawa to lobby for Maritime Rights
Old age pension instituted by federal government
Royal Commission (Duncan) report recommends restoration of preferential Maritime railway freight rates
Supreme Court of Canada rules that women are not “persons” who can be elected to public office
British Privy Council overrules Supreme Court “non-person” decision
New York Stock Market crash
Female worker at Ganong’s candy factory in St. Stephen, N.B., makes $14/wk; her male foreman makes $32/wk
Statute of Westminster grants Canada full autonomy from Britain
Newfoundland Assembly votes to suspend self-government; British appoint “Commission of Government”
The Dionne quintuplets are born in Callander, Ontario
R.B. Bennett’s “New Deal” for Canada announced; Supreme Court later declares it ultra vires
Canada enters World War II after remaining neutral for 1 week; pro-war party in Québec wins provincial election
Ogdensburg Agreement co-ordinates industrial output of Canada and U.S.
Construction boom due to American and Canadian military bases eliminates unemployment in Newfoundland
Canadian raid on French port of Dieppe is a disaster; British later claim it was useful rehearsal for D-Day
Canadian troops advance further inland than any other Allied unit on D-Day (June 6)
Saskatchewan voters elect the first socialist government in North America, led by Tommy Douglas
Newfoundland becomes Canada’s tenth province on March 31st
Mid-century census records Canada’s population as 14 million
Royal Commission (Massey) reports that Canadian culture is dominated by American influences
First television stations in Canada begin broadcasting in Montreal (Sept. 6th) and Toronto (Sept. 8th)
Montreal Canadiens hockey star Maurice “Rocket” Richard is suspended for fighting; riots break out in Montreal
Canadian government cancels the Avro Arrow; many engineers on the project end up working for NASA
St. Lawrence Seaway opens
“Quiet Revolution” begins in Québec
Trans-Canada Highway officially opens
Groundfish landings in Northwest Atlantic peak at 2.8 million tons
The Auto Pact, forerunner of NAFTA, is signed between United States and Canada
The federal government becomes officially bilingual
The FLQ, a militant separatist group in Québec, kidnaps British diplomat and murders Québec cabinet minister
Canada announces 200-nautical-mile coastal fishing zone
Parti Quebécois under Rene Levesque wins Québec provincial election on separatist platform
The majority of Québecers reject separation from Canada in a referendum vote
Québec bans public signs in English
The Canadian Consitution, up until now British legislation, is ratified by the Canadian legislature and every provincial legislature, except Québec.
Jeanne Sauve is named the Governor General of Canada, the first woman appointed to this role.
Brian Mulroney of the Progressive Conservative party is first elected Prime Minister.
Brian Mulroney runs for re-election and wins, the major issue being free trade with the United States.
Canada and the United States sign a free trade agreement.
The proposed Meech Lake Accord, a Constitutional proposal, fails.
On January 1st, the Goods and Services Tax (GST), the most unpopular tax in Canadian history is introduced.
The proposed Charlottetown Accord, a proposal for a new Canadian Constitution, is rejected in a referendum by just over half of Canadians.
Kim Campbell replaces the unpopular politician Brian Mulroney to become Canada’s first female Prime Minister. In an election later that year her party loses all but 2 seats in a Jean Chretién election victory.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect, creating a free trade zone between Canada, the United States and Mexico.
Confederation Bridge links Prince Edward Island to the rest of Canada.
The Territory of Nunavut is carved from the Northwest Territories on April 1st.
Τελευταία επεξεργασία από το χρήστη claus : 15-11-2013 στις 09:13
05-01-2014, 23:49 #5
- Nov 2013
05-01-2014, 23:50 #6
- Nov 2013
National identity and pride develop by comparing the history, culture, progress, and achievements of one nation to those of others. Heritage, culture, folklore, and traditions are the key elements distinguishing the citizens of one country from those of another.
The infographic is a virtual Canadian Hall of Fame and includes influential Canadians who have contributed to scientific and social development, economic security and prosperity, and the creative arts. Famous sports stars, scientists, politicians, and singers became successful in their field. Research efforts led to important discoveries and breakthroughs, which made a revolutionary change in the sciences. They contributed to understanding viral diseases, demystified different phenomena, and helped lay the foundations of many disciplines.
Influential people expanded the boundaries of knowledge and shaped human history. Researchers such as Richard Taylor, Sidney Altman, and Ernest McCulloch are visionaries and revolutionaries who made ingenious inventions. Many Canadian painters such as the Group of Seven, authors such as Margaret Atwood and singers such as Neil Young, Leonard Cohen and Celine Dion are futurists who made important artistic contributions.
Directors such as James Cameron created innovative styles and forms, set trends, and depicted different historical periods. Influential businessmen, sportsmen, inventors, and artists made positive contributions to society, and their ideas and work will shape the future.The new infographic was designed to show visitors that Canada is the home to influential people who were visionaries and history-makers.
κατεβαστε το pdf: http://www.canadafaq.ca/Famous_Canadians.pdf
06-01-2014, 00:32 #7
- Nov 2013
Top Canadian Singers
Top Canadian Singers
Canada has built up a solid reputation at the global music scene as some of the worlds most famous musicians are of Canadian origin.
Rock singer Brian Adams, born in 1959, is among the most renowned musicians, songwriters, and guitarists on a global scale. His career began in 1978 when he sent his first demo recordings to A&M Records inToronto, which included the songs Im Ready and Remember. Adams released a self-titled debut album in 1980 and from then on, his fame kept growing. His best selling album was Reckless (1984), which hit the 1st place on Billboard 200 and was certified platinum five times. Brian Adams is also known for his charity work in Ethiopia and other countries on the African continent.
Alanis Morissette, born 1974, is an alternative rock and post-grunge singer, songwriter and record producer. Due to work pressure, Alanis suffered from anorexia and bulimia until the age of 18, surviving on a diet of Melba toast, coffee, and carrots. She undertook a treatment to un-program her brain and become a minister at religious organization by the name of Universal Life Church. Following two albums released only in Canada, she made her world debut in 1995 with the album Jagged Little Pill, which sold no less than 30 million copies worldwide. One of the albums singles, Ironic became Morissettes biggest hit. Alaniss next album, Supposed Former Infatuation Junkie, released in 1998, was also a major success and broke the record with 469,000 sold copies during the first week. The singer has won twelve Grammy and Juno Awards and her discography includes: How Is the Time, Alanis, Under Rug Slept, Flavors of Entanglement, Supposed Former Infatuation Junkie, So-Called Chaos, and Jugged Little Pill.
Celine Dion, born 1968, is one of the worlds most famous pop singers. She hails from a French Canadian family and her first record, La voix du bon Dieu (1981), became an instant hit within the Francophone audience of Quebec. She released her first English album, Unison, in 1990 and received generally positive reviews by the critics. In 1992, she released a self-titled album, which further propelled her to stardom. Celine Dions fourth album, Falling into You (1996), brought her worldwide commercial success.
Shania Twain was born 1965 and is one of Canadas most famous country and pop singers. Her real name is Eileen Regina Edwards and as a child, she spent most of the time at a homeless community, where she learned to hunt and chop wood. Twain started singing at local bars since the age of eight and considers this to be a valuable educational experience. She released her self-titled debut album in 1993, which was successful on two continents: North America and Europe. Her success continued with the albums Come on Over (1997) and Up!, released in 2002.
06-01-2014, 00:34 #8
- Nov 2013
Top Canadian Actors
Top Canadian Actors
Canada has established a solid presence in world cinema over the last 50 years with numerous excellent actors who starred in a variety of movie genres.
A notable name among the older generation of actors is the comedian Rick Moranis. Born in 1953 inToronto, Ontario, Moranis became a prominent actor during the 1980s with his roles in famous movies such as Ghostbusters; Spaceballs; Honey, I shrunk the Kids; and My Blue Heaven. Throughout the 1980s, he also recorded the music albums The Great White North (1981), and You, Me, the Music and Me, which also gained him fame as a musician. Moranis formally retired in 1997, though he continued to act as an advisor to other comedians.
A prominent member of the same generation is Dan Aykroyd (born in 1952), the originator of Ghostbusters, actor, screenwriter, and also a well-known ufologist and researcher of the supernatural.
Another name familiar to fans of classic movies is Michael J. Fox, born in 1961, who became famous for his role of Marty McFly from the Back to the Future trilogy. He also starred in several television series such as Family Ties and Spin City. He retired from his acting career in 2000 due to illness.
An actress who grew to fame in more recent times is Pamela Anderson, born in 1967. She started her career as a model and showgirl and later gained fame as an actress by starring in the series Baywatch (as C. J. Parker) and V.I.P. (as Vallery Irons). She participated in several movies, among which Barb Wire, Scooby-Doo, and Scary Movie 3. Anderson is also a well-known vegetarian and activist for animal rights. She has participated in various public events, such as the Id Rather Go Naked Than Wear Fur campaign in 2003, and campaigns against seal hunting in Canada.
Keanu Reeves, born in 1964, is another Canadian actor to reach world fame for his roles in Bill & Teds Excellent Adventure, Speed, The Devils Advocate, and The Matrix trilogy. He is known to have started his acting career at the age of nine in a theatrical production of Damn Yankees. An interesting fact is that Reeves was born in Beirut, Lebanon, yet received Canadian citizenship through naturalization.
Carrie-Anne Moss is another well-known Canadian actress who also starred in The Matrix trilogy (in the role of Trinity). Born in 1967, the actress graduated from the American Academy of Dramatic Arts at the age of 21. She took her fist steps in acting by joining the Vancouver childrens musical theater at the age of eleven. The part of Trinity (1999) was her breakthrough and first major success. Commenting on the Matrix, the actress explained that she couldnt wear glasses anymore because whenever she put them on, people would recognize her. During the years she starred in more movies, such as The Crew, Red Planet, and Chocolat. The actress has won the Independent Spirit Award for Snow Cake in 2002 and the Genie Award for Memento in 2007 (best actress in supporting role). Carrie-Anne Moss is married to Steven Roy, and the couple has three children.
06-01-2014, 00:35 #9
- Nov 2013
What great inventions is Canada home of?
What great inventions is Canada home of?
Canadian history of invention follows a long and gracious path. The credit goes to the Canadians forpatenting greater than one million inventions. However very few people in this world are fully aware of the immense contributions made by the Canadians in discovering so many practical items to be used in our day to day living. Some of these are:
Able Walker: Norm Rolston patented the walker in 1986.
Air-conditioned Railway Coach: Henry Ruttan invented it in 1858.
Abdominizer: Dennis Colonello invented this popular exercise instrument in 1984.
Acetylene: This was invented by Thomas L. Wilson in 1904. He also invented Acetylene Buoy in 1904.
Anti-Gravity Suit: This was invented in 1941 by Wilbur Rounding Franks for use by the jet pilots.
Automatic Foghorn: Robert Foulis invented the first steam foghorn in 1859.
5 Pin Bowling: This true Canadian sport had been invented by T.E.Ryan of Toronto in the year 1909.
Basketball: James Naismith invented basket ball in 1891.
Creed Telegraph System: This was invented by Fredrick Creed in 1900.
Compound Steam Engine: Benjamin Franklin Tibbettsinvented this in 1842.
Electric Cooking range and Electric Car Heater: These were invented by Thomas Ahearn in 1882 and 1890 respectively.
Electric Light Bulb: Electric light bulb was originally invented by Henry Woodward in 1874. The patent was later sold to Thomas Edison.
Electron Microscope: The Canadians namely Cecil Hall, Eli Franklin Burton, James Hillier, and Albert Prebus were the co inventors of the electron microscope in 1937.
Quartz Clock: The earliest quartz clock was developed by Warren Marrison.
Standard Time: Sir Sanford Fleming invented it in 1878.
Television Camera: This was invented by F.C.P. Henroteau in the year 1934.
Telephone: Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876.
Wireless radio: Wireless radio inventor was Reginald A. Fessenden in 1900.
Walkie - Talkie: Donald L. Hings invented this apparatus in 1942.
Wirephoto: Wirephoto was originally invented by Edward Samuels Rogers in 1925.
Zipper: Gideon Sundback invented zipper in 1913.
Ultraviolet degradable plastics: Dr. James Guillet was the inventor of this variety of plastics in 1971.
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